Fire alarm system. Standart EN-54

General description of En54 standard system

System general description

In order to understand principle of the system architecture let's conveniently classify it into three major levels: Top level (HMI and software): development of object configuration, instrument database recording/reading, monitoring by fire alarm system. Middle level (receipt and control devices, control and indication panels: collection and processing of information coming from addressed devices, initialization of commands, object status indication, arrangement of interaction between all receipt and control devices.ACL = Addressed Communication Line Low level (signaling devices and input/output modules): detection of fire (accompanied by appearance of smoke and increase of temperature), monitoring of dry contacts status and actuators control.

Arrangement of communication in the system

Arrangement of communication in the middle level

R3500 receipt and control devices are the fundamental components of the system. Fire Alarm Control Panel R3500 device (hereinafter referred to as the R3500) may be provided in three versions:

  • R3510 with a blank door, remote operator control panels and OIP40 indication panels;
  • R3520 with operator control panel built-into the instrument door and remote OIP40 indication panels;
  • R3530 with operator control panel and remote OIP40 indication panel built-into the instrument door.
All the instrument versions have provisions to connect external remote control panels and indication panels. Depending on necessary functionality it is possible to install up to 110 units into the instrument. Units installed by default:
  • PSU-5 power supply unit;
  • PMU-5 power control unit;
  • PCU-R3 peripheral control unit.
Units installed optionally (not more than 8 pieces in aggregate):
  • REL-16 relay unit;
  • NET-2 FCPBus net unit;
  • MMI-2 MMIBus man machine interface unit;
  • PCU-R3 peripheral control unit;
  • LAN-1 local area network unit.

Depending on F3500 version the instrument may be re-fitted with operator control panel (OCP). OCP connection is performed using MMIBus interface. Distance between a R3500 instrument and OCP should not exceed 1000 m.

Each R3500 instrument has provision for connection of OIP40 indication panels. It is possible to connect up to 8 indication panels to an instrument of R3510 and F3520 versions. R3530 instrument is already equipped with an indication panel that is why it is possible to connect not more than 7 OIP40 panels to it.

Network of receipt and control devices, FCPBus interface

In order to make several R3500 instruments interact within one system each instrument should be equipped with a NET-2 unit. This unit unites R3500 instruments into a single system using FCPBus interface (physical level of FCPBus interface). When instruments are united cross-connections between them come to function if necessary: switching of process execution modules connected to addressed connection line of an instrument in case of the following events: Fire, Prealarm, etc. occurred in another instrument.

FCPBus interface is arranged using two independent communication channels. In order to ensure reliability each channel should be executed as an individual cable. Network should be created using cable of screened twisted pair type, and FCPBus network topology common bus. Maximum length of the interface reaches 1000 m.

Arrangement of communication in the low level

Topologies of addressed communication lines

All addressed devices and modules of fire alarm system exchange information with receipt and control device which is a center for collection and processing of information and initialization of commands. This interaction represents the low control level in the addressed system of RUBEZH TM.

By default a PCU-R3 unit is included into R3500 instrument. If it is necessary to increase amount of addressed devices under control or addressed lines, each R3500 instrument may be equipped with up to seven PCU-R3 units in aggregate.

Addressed communication lines (ACL) are used to arrange communication in the low level. Addressed communication line represents double-wire interface for digital data transmission based on RS-R3 protocol developed by Design Bureau of Fire Automation Company. Through two addressed communication line wires simultaneously exchange of information between receipt and control device and addressed devices and power supply of addressed devices such as fire detectors, IM1 and IM4 input modules, OM1, OM4 and POM1 output modules, LI, IOCM43 and IOM22 devices take place. Such devices as IOCM43, OCM1, OCM4 require additional external power supply.

There are several ACL topologies supported by R3500 instrument:
  • ring
  • ring with branch lines
  • radial (if permitted by national standard)
    • Ring ACL topology ensures maximum reliability of communication line. With such architecture line begins at B terminals (LOOP1 or LOOP2) of the instrument, passes along premises in a building and ends up at E terminals (LOOP1 or LOOP2) of the instrument forming a ring. ACL length under such topology is similar, aggregate length of each line should not exceed 3000 meters.

      Ring line gives instrument an opportunity to maintain communication with all addressed devices even in case of the line break. Two radial lines result from a broken ring ACL and part of addressed devices come to be connected to one ACL branch and another part is connected to another branch. Thus in case of single breakdown of a ring line operational integrity of all devices is ensured. Short-circuit in a ring ACL (as well as in radial line) leads to loss of communication with all the devices of the line. In order to protect the line against short-circuits and to keep operational integrity of a part of the line in which there is no short-circuit, it is recommended to install LI loop isolators separating short-circuited part from the rest of the line.

      Ring ACL with branch lines. This kind of architecture provides reliability of ring line and opportunity to have a branch line like radial line has. Like in previous cases there is a limitation for a line length: aggregate length of a line should not exceed 3000 meters.

      Here in case of break or short-circuit branch lines are the most vulnerable ones. It is recommended to install LI loop isolators along the ring and in the beginning of each branch line. In case there is short-circuit in a ring, communication with devices will be lost only in the sector between isolators and with devices located on a branch line connected to the ring line between these isolators.

      Arrangement of communication with top level

      Output of information from receipt and control instruments to compute

      Top level of the system is implemented using a computer. Computer should have FireSec software. Computer is intended to perform system configuration i.e. to create database of the object under protection and logic of the system response to events that occur. Receipt and control instruments protect object only after configuration created with FireSec software is downloaded into them. It is necessary action performed during system setup. It can be done only with a personal computer.

      Receipt and control instruments (middle level) are connected to the computer (top level) using Ethernet interface. A special unit (LAN-1) built into R3500 is intended for connection of the instrument to Ethernet network. Special data exchange protocol LR3 is used to exchange information between PC and LAN unit. Each instrument is connected through LAN unit installed in corresponding instrument.

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